Polkadot is a blockchain community. Launched in 2020 by Dr. Gavin Wooden, co-founder of Ethereum and Solidity, its token, DOT, rapidly turned one of many largest cryptocurrencies by market capitalization.

As of November 4, 2022, DOT is the twelfth largest cryptocurrency with a market capitalization of $7.6 billion. At its peak in November 2021, DOT would garner a market cap of $53.21 billion.


This text explains what the community is, why it exists, and the way it rose so quickly to its excessive valuation.

How Polkadot’s blockchain community works

Polkadot is extra like Ethereum than bitcoin – for starters, it comes with sensible contracts, that are the technical conditions for decentralized functions.

Polkadot’s protocols embody DeFi hub Ekala, whose stablecoin lets customers ship US {dollars} on the Polkadot blockchain — that’s, earlier than the token loses parity with the greenback in August 2022.


Others embody automated market makers, a kind of decentralized alternate, corresponding to PolkaSwap, in addition to different blockchain native protocols, corresponding to SushiSwap.

Like Ethereum, Polkadot is a proof-of-stake community, which means it’s extra environmentally pleasant than the energy-intensive proof-of-work consensus mechanisms that dominated earlier blockchains corresponding to bitcoin.

Proof-of-stake networks depend on teams of validators. They stake cash to confirm transactions; The know-how replaces proof-of-work networks like bitcoin, which mine cash from power-consuming machines.

Nicely, technically, DOT has what’s known as a Named Proof-of-Stake — a option to enable DOT stakeholders to decide on which nodes can take part within the validation of recent blocks on the Polkadot blockchain.

an revolutionary structural design

The principle innovation of Polkadot is discovered within the construction of its community.

On Ethereum, the bottom layer of the Ethereum blockchain, often known as Layer 1, verifies all transactions on the community. The benefit is that it makes Ethereum extremely safe.

Customers can entry a large pool of validators to substantiate their transactions. However the drawback is that every decentralized software should depend on the identical group of miners.

Polkadot could be very completely different. The community is comprised of a lot of completely different blockchains – not only one, like Ethereum. (That stated, Ethereum has begun to imitate Polkadot’s multi-chain infrastructure construction, adopting facet chains and rollups to hurry up its dangerous chain).

The primary chain on Polkadot, launched in Could 2020, is named the Relay Chain. This chain coordinates with all different chains on the Polkadot community. It does simply that – you may’t run sensible contracts on it, for instance.

Relay Chain makes use of DOT to settle transactions, much like ETH on Ethereum. Consequently, DOT was launched following the verification of the primary block of the relay chain – often known as the Genesis block.

Blockchains coordinated by relay chains are often known as parachains. Launching in December 2021, they’ll run their very own token. Parachains can run with their very own validators when coordinated by the relay chain.

This makes parachains utterly unbiased from the remainder of the community. So if a gaggle of validators seems to be cheaters, all the Polkadot community just isn’t doomed.

Polkadot claims that this freedom makes parachains much more versatile than sensible contracts on Ethereum, because the community will be structured in a wide range of methods.

They depend on a modular framework known as Substrate developed by Polkadot growth firm Parity Applied sciences. The modularity of Substrate lets builders select which elements of the blockchain they want, and keep away from losing assets and time on issues they do not want.

So long as the parachain can talk with the relay chain, it may well do no matter it desires. That is largely because of a bit of know-how known as “heterogeneous sharding”.

All of Polkadot’s chains are interoperable with one another – much like how decentralized finance protocols on Ethereum hyperlink collectively.

Polkadot additionally manages to assist join public chains to non-public chains. This implies companies can simply change from privately legitimate transactions to public transactions, making life simpler for entrepreneurs.

The variety of parachain slots on the community is proscribed to 100, and it prices hundreds of thousands of {dollars} to lease one. Nonetheless, don’t have any concern: they’re shared by myriad community contributors.

The community operates a 3rd a part of the community known as a parathread, a kind of “pay-as-you-go” system that dramatically will increase the variety of functions that may run on the community.

These parathreads pool their staking energy to run parachain slots.

Then there’s Polkadot’s bridge, which permits all of those protocols to port belongings to different blockchains like Ethereum or Cosmos.

All this structure makes Polkadot very quick. Splitting the community into completely different elements prevents every thing from going by the relay chain, so it does not shut down so quick.

The Relay Chain can course of over 1,000 transactions per second, in comparison with roughly 13 transactions per second on Ethereum.

That stated, Ethereum plans to extend the pace of its mainnet over the following years, and it’s already potential to succeed in increased throughput speeds when utilizing rollup networks like Arbitrum or Optimism. Who guidelines Polkadot?

The principle builders of Polkadot are Dr. Gavin Wooden, Robert Habermeier, and Peter Kazaban. The corporate operates beneath the Web3 Basis, of which Wooden is chairman. (Wooden can also be credited with inventing the time period “Net 3.0” in 2014).

Wooden launched its whitepaper for Polkadot in October 2016. Then Polkadot raised $144.3 million in an October 2017 preliminary coin providing (ICO). The token sale ran for 2 weeks, with 50% of DOT’s preliminary provide offered out.

In November 2017, somebody froze 66% of the ETH raised by Polkadot in its ICO. The founders used the remnants of the proceeds to construct out the community, and raised more cash in a personal token sale in 2019, the small print of that are unknown.

Polkadot is ruled by its personal token holders, who use the DOT stake to rework the blockchain protocol. DOT holders can improve the facility of their staked DOT by locking it up for an extended time frame. The longer the stake, the upper the facility.

Anybody who locks up DOT in Polkadot’s governance protocol receives extra DOT as a reward, incentivizing holders to have interaction in governance.

Bear in mind, for the reason that platform runs on a nominated proof-of-stake, stakeholders vote on which validators they need to course of blocks. Individuals who nominate validators are known as nominators.

The validators additionally embody T-Techniques, a subsidiary of European telecommunications large Deutsche Telekom. Deutsche Telekom can also be a serious investor in DOT.

DOT holders additionally elect Polkadot’s council. Council members may suggest adjustments, and resolve whether or not to implement proposals from different DOT holders.

This doesn’t suggest that DOT holders haven’t got a say – it simply implies that the council has extra energy; Council resolutions don’t require extra votes than these forged by the common holders of DOT.

The Council can also be liable for voting in members of Polkadot’s Technical Committee – a working group made up of the groups that construct Polkadot. The committee is ready to suggest updates to the community in occasions of disaster.

The primary official group vote, which went into impact in August 2020, elevated DOT 100 occasions.

Just like a inventory break up, the revaluation didn’t change the market capitalization of DOT, however as an alternative elevated the full provide of DOT from 10 million to 1 billion, and diminished the worth of every particular person DOT token by an element of 100.

The provision of DOT is inflationary. This implies it will increase over time – when 75% of circulating DOT tokens are staked the speed will increase by 10% yearly. Crypto analytics web site Messari estimates that its provide will surpass 2 billion DOT in September 2027, all issues being equal.


The governance module can vote on how a lot DOT the treasury receives; The preliminary design despatched 20% to validators and 80% to the treasury.

This contains token governance. However the individuals who run the validators are liable for guaranteeing that transactions circulation by the blockchain in a decentralized method.

Blocks are generated by two consensus mechanisms. Blocks are created by an algorithm known as BABE – that is blind task for blockchain extensions, then achieved by GRANDPA: GHOST-Primarily based Recursive Ancestor Derived Prefix Settlement.

The relay chain makes use of 4 roles to take care of the system. In addition to validators and enrollers, the community consists of “collators” – nodes that retailer the entire historical past of every parachain, and sift by every one’s information to form transactions into blocks able to be processed by the relay chain. Let’s mix.

Then there are “fishermen”. These operators monitor the Polkadot community, from dangerous actors to validators. They don’t take part within the verification of transactions, however obtain the next share of the rewards than validators.

It’s troublesome to establish whether or not Polkadot can be profitable in the long term. Its important competitor, Ethereum, can also be proof of stake, and has a variety of growth exercise. That is why the market cap of ETH is about 25 occasions that of Polkadot.

DOT’s important rival was SOL, Solana’s native token – however that token crashed after its main investor, FTX, went bankrupt in November 2022 following misappropriation of consumer funds. Through the crypto winter, buyers could have to attend till the market re-emerges to see a rise in exercise in so-called “Ethereum killers”.

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